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Neutron Star Cooling: References

Below we give the most representative references for each individual object, regarding the timing properties, distances, and age estimates that we use in the main table.
Additionally, we indicate also some papers regarding the discovery, the spectral modeling and specific features. Note that the list for each object is thought as a compilation of the most basic references, and it is not meant to be complete.

General reviews


Grand unification of neutron stars
Kaspi (2010)

On Pulsar Distance Measurements and Their Uncertainties
Verbiest et al. (2012)

Central Compact Objects (CCOs)

Review: Gotthelf et al. (2013)

CXOU J185238.6+004020 (PSR J1852+0040) in SNR Kesteven 79 (G33.6+0.1)

Discovery: Seward et al. (2003).
SNR age: Sun et al. (2004) give 5.4-7.5 kyr.
Distance: Case & Bhattacharya (1998), d ∼ 7.1 kpc; Green's catalog of SNRs, d = 7.8 kpc; Frail & Clifton, d = 10 ± 2 kpc.
Timing properties: Gotthelf et al. (2005), Halpern & Gotthelf (2010).

1E 1207.4-5209 (PSR J1210-5226) in SNR G296.5+10.0 (PKS 1209-51/52)

Discovery: Mereghetti et al. (1996)
Distance: Giacani et al. (2000) give d = 2.1 +1.8 -0.8 kpc.
Timing properties: Zavlin et al. (2000), Gotthelf et al. (2013).
Spectral analysis: Mori & Hailey (2006), De Luca et al. (2004), Pavlov et al. (2002); Mereghetti et al. (2002); Bignami et al. (2003); Sanwal et al. (2002).

RX J0822-4300 (PSR J0821-4300) in SNR Puppis A

Discovery: Pavlov et al. (1999)
Distance: Reynoso et al. (2003).
Timing properties: Gotthelf et al. (2013), Gotthelf & Halpern (2009).
Spectral modeling: de Luca et al. (2012), Hui & Becker (2006), Zavlin et al. (1999).

CXO J232327.9+584842 in SNR Cassiopeia A

Association and SNR age: the association to an historical SN of 16/08/1680, possibly registred as a normal star by Flamsteed, has been proposed by Ashworth (1980), compatible with the age by Fesen et al. (2006).
Distance: Reed et al. (1995).
Spectral analysis: Pavlov & Luna (2009); Ho & Heinke (2009); Mereghetti et al. (2002).

Rotation-Powered Pulsars (RPPs)

Timing and spectral properties: Table 4 of Kaplan & van Kerkwijk 2009.

PSR J0538+2817 in SNR S147

Distance and ages: Verbiest et al. (2012), d = 1.3 ± 0.2 kpc; Ng et al. (2007), d = 1.47 +0.42-0.27 kpc, age ∼ 40 kyr; Kramer et al. (2003), age ∼ 30 kyr.
Spectral analysis: Ng et al. (2007); Zavlin & Pavlov (2004); McGowan et al. (2003); Romani et al. (2003).

PSR B1055-52 (J1057-5226) in Monogem Ring [Musketeer]

Distance: Mignani et al. (2010), d = 730 ± 150 pc; ATNF pulsar catalog, d = 1.53 kpc.
Association: Thorsett et al. (2003).
Age and distance: Plucinsky et al. (1996).
Spectral analysis: de Luca et al. (2005), Zavlin & Pavlov (2004), Greiveldinger et al. (1996), Oegelman & Finley (1993).

PSR J0633+1746 (Geminga) [Musketeer]

Distance: 250+230-80 pc from Verbiest et al. (2012), revising the d=250+120-62 pc from Faherty et al. (2007).
Spectral analysis: Jackson & Halpern (2005), Kargaltsev et al. (2005), De Luca et al. (2005), Halpern & Ruderman (1993).
Birth place: Pellizza et al. (2005).

PSR B1706-44 (J1709-4429)

Distance: Verbiest et al. (2012).
Timing and spectral analysis: Gotthelf et al. (2002), McGowan et al. (2004).

PSR B0833-45 (J0835-4510) in SNR Vela

Distance: Verbiest et al. (2012), d = 0.28 ± 0.02 kpc; Dodson et al. (2003), d = 289+19-17 pc.
Spectrum: Mori et al. (2004),Pavlov et al. (2001).

PSR B0656+14 (J0659+1414) [Musketeer]

Distance: Verbiest et al. (2012), d = 280 ± 30 pc; Brisken et al. (2003) d = 288 +33-27 pc.
Spectral analysis: De Luca et al. (2005); Zavlin & Pavlov (2004), Finley et al. (1992).

PSR B2334+61 (J2337+6151) in SNR G114.3+0.3

Association: Furst et al. (1993); Kulkarni et al. (1993).
Distance: McGowan et al. (2006), d = 3.1+0.2-1 kpc; Yar-Uyaniker et al. (2004), d = 0.7 kpc.
Spectral analysis: McGowan et al. (2006).

PSR J1740+1000

Discovery: McLaughlin et al. (2002).
Spectral analysis: Kargaltsev et al. (2012).

PSR J1741-2054

Spectral analysis: Karpova et al. (2014)

High magnetic field pulsars (HB)

Review: Ng & Kaspi 2011, see also Table 4 of Zhu et al. 2011.

PSR J0726-2612 (1RXS J072559.8-261229)

Discovery, distance and analysis: Speagle et al. (2011).

PSR J1119-6127 in SNR G292.2-0.5

Discovery: Camilo et al. (2000).
Association: Crawford et al. (2001).
Distance of the SNR: Caswell et al. (2004), d = 8.4 ± 0.4 kpc.
Age of the SNR: Kumar et al. (2012).
Timing: Weltevrede et al. (2011)
Spectrum: Safi-Harb et al. (2008), Gonzalez et al. (2007), Gonzalez et al. (2005), Gonzalez & Safi-Harb (2003), Pivovaroff et al. (2001).

PSR J1819-1458 (CXOU J181939.1-145804) [RRAT]

Discovery: Reynolds et al. (2006).
Distance: DM estimate.
Timing: Lyne et al. (2009).
Spectrum: Camero-Arranz et al. (2013), Rea et al. (2009),McLaughlin et al. (2007).

PSR J1718-3718

Distance: 4.5 kpc from DM, but Zhu et al. (2011) suggest 4.5-10 kpc.
Timing: Manchester & Hobbs (2011).
Spectrum: Zhu et al. (2011), Kaspi & McLaughlin (2005).

The Magnificent Seven (X-ray Isolated Neutron Stars; XINSs)

Reviews: Turolla (2009); Haberl (2007); van Kerkwijk & Kaplan (2007).
Proper motions: Motch et al. (2009).
Timing properties summarized in Table 4 of Kaplan & van Kerkwijk (2009).

RX J0420.0-5022

Discovery: Haberl et al. (1999).
Timing: Kaplan & van Kerwijk (2011).
Spectrum: Haberl et al. (2004).

RX J1856.5-3754:

Discovery: Walter et al. (1996).
Distance: Walter et al. (2010), d = 123+11-15 pc; Verbiest et al. (2012): d = 160 +20-10 pc.
Age: Mignani et al. (2013); Tetzlaff et al. (2011).
Timing: van Kerkwijk & Kaplan (2008), Tiengo & Mereghetti (2007).
Spectrum: Sartore et al. (2012), Burwitz et al. (2003), Burwitz et al. (2001), Walter & Matthews (1997).

RX J2143.0+0654 (RBS 1774, 1RXS J214303.7+065419)

Discovery: Zampieri et al. (2001).
Timing: Kaplan & van Kerkwijk (2009),
Spectrum: Zane et al. (2008), Rea et al. (2007), Zane et al. (2005).

RX J0720.4-3125

Discovery: Haberl et al. (1997).
Distance and age: Tetzlaff et al. (2011), d = 286+27-23 pc, age: 850 +- 150 kyr; Verbiest et al. (2012), d = 0.4+0.3-0.1 kpc.
Timing: Kaplan & van Kerkwijk (2005), Cropper et al. (2004).
Spectrum: Hohle et al. (2012), Hohle et al. (2009), van Kerkwijk et al. (2007), Haberl et al. (2004).

RX J0806.4-4123

Discovery: Haberl et al. (1998).
Timing: Kaplan & van Kerkwijk (2009).
Spectrum: Haberl et al. (2004); Haberl & Zavlin (2002).

RX J1308.6+2127 (RBS 1223)

Discovery: Schwope et al. (1999).
Timing: Kaplan & van Kerkwijk (2005).
Spectral analysis: Schwope et al. (2007); Schwope et al. (2005); Haberl et al. (2003).

RX J1605.3+3249

Discovery: Motch et al. (1999).
Timing: Pires et al. (2014).
Spectrum: van Kerkwijk et al. (2004).
Distance, proper motion and age: Posselt et al. (2007); Tetzlaff et al. (2012); Motch et al. (2005).

Magnetars

Review: Mereghetti (2008), Rea & Esposito (2011) (outbursts).
Distances treated in Durant & van Kerkwijk (2006).
Magnetar/SNR associations: Gaensler et al. (2001).

1E 2259+586 (AXP J2301+5852) in SNR CTB 109 (G109.1-1.0)

Discovery and firm association with SNR: Fahlman & Gregory (1981).
Distance of SNR: Kothes & Foster (2012) give d = 3.2 ± 0.2 kpc (with extensive review of all previous measurements, including: Durant & van Kerkwijk (2006), d = 7 kpc; Tian et al. (2010), d = 4.0 ± 0.8 kpc; Verbiest et al. (2012), d = 4.1 ± 0.7 kpc).
SNR age: Castro et al. (2012) derive 8.5-15 kyr, Sasaki et al. (2013) derive 10-20 kyr.
Timing properties: Gavriil & Kaspi (2002).
Spectral analysis: Icdem et al. (2012); Zhu et al. (2008); Woods et al. (2004).
Proper motion: Tendulkar et al. (2013).

4U 0142+614 (PSR J0146+6145)

Discovery: Bradt & McClintock (1983); Israel et al. (1994).
Distance: Durant & van Kerkwijk (2006).
Timing properties: Gavriil et al. (2011).
Spectral analysis: Gavriil et al. (2011), Gonzalez et al. (2010), den Hartog et al. (2008), Dib et al. (2007), Rea et al. (2007), Rea et al. (2007).
Proper motion: Tendulkar et al. (2013) (no association found).

CXO J164710.2-455216 (PSR J1647-4552) in stellar cluster Westerlund 1

Discovery and firm association to the young (few Myr-old) stellar cluster Westerlund 1: Muno et al. (2006).
Distance of the cluster: Koumpia & Bonanos (2012), d = 3.71 ± 0.55 kpc; Gennaro et al. (2011), d = 4.0 ± 0.2 kpc; Negueruela et al. (2010) and Crowther et al. (2006), about 5 kpc; Brandner et al. (2008), d = 3.55 ± 0.17 kpc; Kothes & Dougherty (2007), d = 3.9 ± 0.7 kpc.
Spectral and Timing analysis: Rodriguez et al. (2013) in prep.; An et al. (2013); Israel et al. (2007).

XTE J1810-197 (PSR J1809-1943)

Discovery: Ibrahim et al. (2004).
Distance: Verbiest et al. (2012), d = 3.6 ± 0.5 kpc; Durant & van Kerkwijk (2006), d = 3.1 ± 0.5 kpc; d = 2 - 5 kpc from X-ray spectra, 3.3 kpc from DM, as summarized in Minter et al. (2008).
Spectral and Timing analysis: Bernardini et al. (2011), Albano et al. (2010).
Proper motion: Helfand et al. (2007).

1E 1547.0-5408 (PSR J1550-5418) (in SNR G327.24-0.13?)

Discovery: Lamb & Markert (1981).
Unconfirmed association to SNR G327.24–0.13: Gelfand & Gaensler (2007)
Distance: Tiengo et al. (2010), d = 4.5 ± 0.5 kpc, considering the distances coming from the majority of dust models that give an acceptable fit; Camilo et al. (2007), d = 9 kpc with DM; Gelfand & Gaensler (2007), SNR association with d = 3.7-4.3 kpc.
Spectral and Timing analysis: Dib et al. (2012); Kuiper et al. (2012); Scholz & Kaspi (2011)
Proper motion: Deller et al. (2012).

1E 1048.1-5937 (PSR J1048-5937)

Discovery: Seward et al. (1986).
Distance: Gaensler et al. (2005), unconfirmed association with the stellar wind bubble GSH 288.3-0.5-2.8, d = 2.7 ± 1.0 kpc; Durant & van Kerkwijk (2006), d = 9.0 ± 1.7 kpc.
Timing properties: Gavriil & Kaspi (2004); Kaspi et al. (2001).
Spectral analysis: Dim et al. (2009); Tam et al. (2008); Tiengo et al. (2005);

CXOU J010043.1-721 (PSR J0100-7211) in the Small Magellanic Cloud

Discovery: Lamb et al. (2002).
Distance: Hilditch et al. (2005).
Timing properties: McGarry et al. (2005).
Spectral analysis: Tiengo et al. (2008);

1RXS J170849.0-400910 (PSR J1708-4009)

Discovery: Sugizaki et al. (1997).
Distance: Durant & van Kerkwijk (2006).
Timing properties: Dib et al. (2008).
Spectral analysis: Dib et al. (2008); Götz et al. (2007); Israel et al. (2007); Rea et al. (2005); Rea et al. (2003).

CXOU J171405.7-381031 in SNR CTB 37B

Discovery and association: Aharonian et al. (2008).
Distance of the SNR: Tian et al. (2012).
Age of the SNR: Horvath & Allen (2011) (see discussion); Aharonian et al. (2008), updated with the new distance.
Timing properties: Sato et al. (2010); Halpern & Gotthelf (2010).

1E 1841-045 (PSR J1841-0456) in SNR Kesteven 73

Discovery and association: Vasisht & Gotthelf (1997)
Distance of the SNR: Verbiest et al. (2012), d = 9.6 kpc; Tian & Leahy (2008), d = 8.5 kpc.
Age of the SNR: Tian & Leahy (2008).
Timing properties: Dib et al. (2008).
Spectral properties: Lin et al. (2011), Kumar & Safi-Harb (2010), Morii et al. (2010), Zhu & Kaspi (2010), Dib et al. (2008).

SGR 0501+4516 (PSR J0501+4516) (in SNR G160.9+2.6 (HB9)?)

Discovery: GCN 8113.
Unconfirmed association: GCN8149.
Distance of the SNR: Leahy & Achenbach (1995), d = 1.5 kpc; Leahy & Tian (2007) d = 0.8 kpc; they are quite small compared with the Nh-inferred one.
Timing properties: Gögüs et al. (2010).
Spectral analysis: Camero et al. (2013); Dhillon et al. (2011); Rea et al. (2009).

SGR 1627-41 (PSR J1635-4735) in SNR G337.0-0.1

Discovery and unconfirmed association: Woods et al. (1999).
Distance and age of the SNR: Corbel et al. (1999).
Timing properties: Esposito et al. (2009); Esposito et al. (2009).
Spectral analysis: An et al. (2012); Esposito et al. (2009).

SGR 0526-66 (PSR J0525-6607) in SNR N49 (Large Magellanic Cloud)

Discovery: Mazets et al. (1979).
Association to the SNR: Cline et al. (1982); Klose et al. (2004).
Distance of the LMC: Walter (2012) (uncertainties of 3/100).
Age of the SNR: Park et al. (2012).
Timing properties: Tiengo et al. (2009).
Spectral analysis: Güver et al. (2012); Tiengo et al. (2009); Kulkarni et al. (2003).

SGR 1900+14 (PSR J1907+0919)

Discovery: Mazets et al. (1979).
Proposed associations: Hurley et al. (1999) with G42.8+0.6; Vasisht et al. (1994) with G43.9+1.6; Vrba et al. (2000) with a cluster, favoured by proper motion. Distance: Davies et al. (2009).
Timing properties: Mereghetti et al. (2006); Woods et al. (2003); Woods et al. (2002); Marsden et al. (1999); Hurley et al. (1999).
Spectral analysis: Gögüs et al. (2011), Israel et al. (2008), Woods et al. (2003); Kouveliotou et al. (1999).
Proper motion: Tendulkar et al. (2012).

SGR 1806-20 (PSR J1808-2024)

Discovery: Laros et al. (1986).
Unconfirmed associations: Kulkarni & Frail (1993); Kulkarni et al. (1994); Gaensler et al. (2001) rules it out.
Distance: Verbiest et al. (2012), d = give 13+4-3 kpc; Bibby et al. (2008), d = 8.7+1.8-1.5 kpc.
Proper motion: Tendulkar et al. (2012).
Spectral and timing analysis: Woods et al. (2007); Mereghetti et al. (2005); Tiengo et al. (2005); Rea et al. (2005); Woods et al. (2002).

SGR 0418+5729 (PSR J0418+5732)

Discovery: van der Horst et al. (2010).
Analysis: Rea et al. (2013),; Esposito et al. (2010); Rea et al. (2010).

Swift J1822.3-1606

Discovery: Rea et al. (2012).
Proposed association and analysis: Scholz et al. (2014); Scholz et al. (2012); Rea et al. (2012).
Distance Nielbock et al. (2001).


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